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OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA (OSA) Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment in Bangladesh

DO YOU WAKE UP FEELING TIRED, SLEEP DEPRIVED, AND IRRITABLE?

YOU COULD BE SUFFERING FROM SLEEP APNEA.

Individuals with sleep apnea stop breathing for short periods of time when sleeping. According to the American Lung Association, pauses in breathing can last just a few seconds to a few minutes, and occur as little as 5 to as many as 30 times per hour. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (commonly referred to as OSA) is an obstruction or collapse of the airway, which impacts your breathing during sleep. With little to no air flowing to your lungs, there is a decrease in oxygen levels in the blood. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that disease is a debilitating and life-shortening condition that can impact not only your life but livelihood.

What is Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Breathing pauses during sleep are the hallmarks of a common and possibly dangerous sleep disease called obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These disruptions, often referred to as apneas, happen when the throat muscles overly relax, partially or totally blocking the upper airway. People who have OSA have short breathing pauses, which, if addressed, may result in a variety of health problems. 

Causes and Mechanism

There are two types of causes and mechanisms for these diseases. These are: Muscle Relaxation and Airway Obstruction.

Muscle Relaxation

During sleep, the muscles in the throat and tongue naturally relax. In individuals with OSA, this relaxation is excessive, leading to the narrowing or complete closure of the airway.

Airway Obstruction

The relaxed muscles may collapse and block the upper airway, preventing the flow of air into the lungs. This obstruction results in a temporary pause in breathing. 

Signs and Symptoms

There are several signs and symptoms of OSA. Although these symptoms can be difficult to identify for a person. It can take years to detect on his own. Here are some signs so that you can identify whether you are suffering from this disease or not.

 

  • Loud Snoring
  • Pauses in Breathing
  • Choking or Gasping
  • Daytime sleepiness
  • Morning Headaches
  • Irritability and Mood Changes
  • Difficulty with Concentration

Loud Snoring

Loud and constant snoring is one of the main signs of OSA. Silence that denotes a break in breathing is often interspersed by snoring.

Pauses in Breathing

Witnessed episodes of breathing cessation during sleep, reported by bed partners or family members.

Choking or Gasping

Individuals with OSA may awaken with a choking or gasping sound as they resume breathing after an apnea.

Daytime Sleepiness

OSA can lead to disrupted sleep, causing excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and difficulty staying awake or focused during the day.

Morning Headaches

OSA is associated with morning headaches due to the impact of disrupted breathing on oxygen levels.

Irritability and Mood Changes

Sleep fragmentation and the resulting poor sleep quality can contribute to irritability, mood swings, and difficulty concentrating.

Difficulty with Concentration

Cognitive impairment, difficulty concentrating, and memory issues may arise due to the impact of OSA on sleep quality.

FACTORS THAT INCREASE THE RISK OF SLEEP APNEA

  • A small upper airway (or large tongue, tonsils or uvula)
  • Being overweight
  • Having a recessed chin, small jaw, or a large overbite
  • A large neck size (17 inches or greater in a man, or 16 inches or greater in a woman)
  • Smoking and alcohol use
  • Age 40 or older
  • Ethnicity (African-Americans, Pacific-Islanders and Hispanics)
  • Also, OSA seems to run in some families, suggesting a possible genetic basis

OSA Diagnosis and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment in Bangladesh

Obstructive Sleep Apnea treatment in Bangladesh is traditional remedies to modern medical interventions.Diagnosis and effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea are crucial for preventing complications and improving overall quality of life. Individuals experiencing symptoms of OSA should seek evaluation and guidance from healthcare professionals, particularly sleep specialists.

Polysomnography (Sleep Study)

The gold standard for diagnosing OSA involves a sleep study, typically conducted in a sleep center or with home sleep testing devices.

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

CPAP therapy is the primary treatment for moderate to severe OSA. This involves using a machine that delivers a continuous stream of air to keep the airway open.

BiPAP Therapy

Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure is another form of positive airway pressure therapy that provides different pressure levels for inhalation and exhalation.

Lifestyle Changes

Weight loss, positional therapy, and avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime may help manage mild cases of OSA.

Surgery

Surgical interventions, such as uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) or genioglossus advancement (GA), may be considered in some cases.

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